Port and Airport Design Manuals

The Port of Oakland, CA with 5 million sf of interlocking concrete pavement receive wheel loads as much as ten times higher than over-the-road trucks.

Since the 1980s, interlocking concrete pavement has been used in many port and industrial pavements in the U.S., Canada and overseas. The largest application in the Western Hemisphere is 5 million sf (500,000 m2) at the Port of Oakland, California. Built in the early 2000s, this pavement receives loads from container handling equipment with as much as 50,000 lb (23,000 kg) wheel loads. Concrete pavers offer a superior wearing surface compared to other pavements. The modular nature of the paver surface enables pavement repairs without damage from cuts the reduce pavement life.

Port and industrial pavements can be designed using the ICPI manual, Port and Industrial Pavement Design with Concrete Pavers by Dr. John Knapton and David R. Smith. Click here to download a free copy. The manual includes the design method, design tables, and a guide construction specification. Also, a similar and recent resource by Dr. Knapton is available from ICPI’s sister organization in the United Kingdom called Interpave. Click here to download a free copy. 


Interlocking concrete pavements support recreational, business, commercial and military aircraft in airports around the world. Wheel loads range from that from cars for recreational aircraft to 50,000 lbs (23,000 kg) for a B-747 on takeoff. Benefits include no waiting for during construction, high resistance to oils and deicers, and faster repair time compared to conventional concrete pavements. In some cases, they can have a lower initial and life-cycle cost compared to reinforced concrete pavements. Interlocking concrete pavements are eligible for Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program funding on a case-by-case basis.

Click here to download ICPI’s free manual, Airport Pavement Design with Concrete Pavers (U.S. version) by Roy D. McQueen, PE, Dr. John Knapton, John Emery and David R. Smith. The manual follows the FAA flexible pavement design method for airfields, includes a life-cycle cost analysis example, an FAA-style construction specification, and detail drawings.

Click here to download the manual of the same title for Canadian airport applications by David K. Hein, P. Eng. This manual includes follows the Public Works Canada flexible pavement design method for airfields and a PWC-style construction specification.